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Isnin, Jun 03, 2013

Motor Generator, Solar Hot Water Panel, Fan Controller, Motor Speed,

Free Electronic/electric Circuit diagram for many electronic project, electrical project and electromachanical.


Motor Generator Stepper

Stepper motors are a subject that keeps recurring. This little circuit changes a clock signal (from a square wave generator) into signals with a 90-degree phase difference, which are required to drive the stepper motor windings. The price we pay for the simplicity is that the frequency is reduced by a factor of four. This isn’t really a problem, since we just have to increase the input frequency to compensate. The timing diagram clearly shows that the counter outputs of the 4017 are combined using inverting OR gates to produce two square waves with a phase difference. This creates the correct sequence for powering the windings: the first winding is negative and the second positive, both windings are negative, the first winding is positive and the second negative, and finally both windings are positive.

Circuit diagram:Stepper Motor Generator Circuit project
Stepper Motor Generator Circuit Diagram

Internally, the 4017 has a divide-by-10 counter followed by a decoder. Output ‘0’ is active (logic one) as long as the internal counter is at zero. At the next positive edge of the clock signal the counter increments to 1 and output ‘1’ becomes active. This continues until output ‘4’ becomes a logic one. This signal is connected to the reset input, which immediately resets the counter to the ‘zero’ state. If you were to use an oscilloscope to look at this output, you would have to set it up very precisely before you would be able to see this pulse; that’s how short it is. The output of an OR gate can only supply several mA, which is obviously much too little to drive a stepper motor directly. A suitable driver circuit, which goes between the generator and stepper motor.

Solar Hot Water Panel Differential Pump Controller circuit

This circuit optimises the circulation of heated water from solar hot water panels to a storage cylinder. It achieves this by controlling a 12V DC pump, which is switched on at a preset temperature differential of 8°C and off at about 4°C. This method of control has distinct advantages over some systems that run the pump until the differential approaches 0°C. In such systems, the pump typically runs whenever the sun shines. A small 10W solar panel charging a 12V SLA battery is sufficient to run the controller. Most commercial designs use 230VAC pumps, which of course don’t work when there is a power outage or there is no AC power at the site.

Solar hot water panel differential pump controllerOperation:

Temperature sensors TS1 & TS2 are positioned to measure the highest and lowest water temperatures, with one at the panel outlet and the other at the base of the storage cylinder. The difference between the sensor outputs is amplified by op amp IC1d, which is configured for a voltage gain of about 47. As the sensors produce 10mV/°C, a difference of 8°C will produce about 3.76V at the op amp’s output (pin 14). The output from IC1d is fed into the non-inverting input (pin 10) of a second op amp stage (IC1c), which is wired as a voltage comparator. The op amp’s inverting input (pin 9) is tied to a reference voltage, which can be varied by trimpot VR3. When the voltage from IC1d exceeds the reference voltage, the output of the comparator (pin 8) swings towards the positive rail.

A 10MW resistor feeds a small portion of the output signal back to the non-inverting input, adding some hysteresis to the circuit to ensure positive switching action. A third op amp stage (IC1b) acts as a unity-gain buffer. When the comparator’s output goes high, the buffer stage switches the Mosfet (Q1) on, which in turn energises the pump motor. Mosfet Q1’s low drain-source on-state resistance means that in most cases, it won’t need to be mounted on a heatsink. The prototype uses a Davies Craig EBP 12V magnetic drive pump, which draws about 1A when running and is suitable for low-pressure hot water systems only (don’t use it for mains-pressure systems as it may burst!). For mains-pressure systems, the author suggests the SID 10 range of brass-body magnetic drive pumps from Ivan Labs USA.

Circuit diagram:Solar hot water panel differential pump controller
Setup:

Each LM335 temperature sensor and its associated trimpot is glued to a small copper strip using high-temperature epoxy. It is then waterproofed with silicon sealant and encapsulated in heatshrink tubing. Standard twin-core shielded microphone cable can be used for the connection to the circuit board. Before sealing the two units, adjust their trimpots to get 2.98V at 25°C [(ambient temperature x .01) + 2.73V] between the "+" and "-" terminals. When both have been adjusted, clamp them together and allow their temperatures to stabilise for a few minutes. Next, measure the output voltage from the differential amplifier (IC1d), which should be close to 0V. If not, tweak one of the pots until it is.

Separate the two and warm the panel sensor (TS1), monitoring the output of IC1d. You should see a marked increase in voltage, remembering that an 8°C difference between the sensors should give an output of about 3.76V. The pump switch-on point is set by VR3 and can be adjusted over a practical range of about 4-10°C differential (1.88-4.70V). Adjust VR3 to get about 3.8V on pin 9 of IC1c as a starting point. If set too low and the panels are located far from the cylinder, much of the heat will be lost in the copper connecting pipes. On the other hand, if set too high and the weather is mostly cloudy, then the pump will not switch on very often, as the panels will not get hot enough. For best results, use copper pipes for the panel plumbing and insulate them with tubes of closed-cell foam.

As the pipes cool down between pump operations, small diameter pipes of 15mm are more efficient than larger sizes as they contain less static water. In practice, the pump in the author’s setup switches on for about 30 seconds every 4-5 minutes. As the Davies pump shifts 13 litres/minute, it displaces the heated water from a single panel in about 14 seconds. There is a thermal lag in the sensor readings, so after the pump stops, the temperature difference will keep decreasing for 40 seconds or so as the panel sensor cools down and the cylinder sensor heats up.

Author: Mike Scaife - Copyright: Silicon Chip Electronics

Fan Controller with Just Two Components circuit 

The Maxim MAX 6665 (www.maxim-ic.com) provides a complete temperature-dependent fan controller. It can switch fans operating at voltages of up to 24 V and currents of up to 250 mA. The IC is available from the manufacturer in versions with preset threshold temperatures between +40 °C (MAX6665 ASA40) and +70 °C (MAX6665 ASA 70). The device’s hysteresis can be set by the user via the HYST input, which can be connected to +3.3 V, connected to ground, or left open. The following table shows the hysteresis values available:

HYST = Hysteresis
open = 1 °C
ground = 4 °C
+3.3V = 8 °C
Fan Controller Circuit Diagram
Fan Controller Circuit Diagram

The other pins of the SO8 package are the FORCEON input and the status outputs WARN, OT and FANON. The test input FORCEON allows the fan to be run even below the threshold temperature. The open-drain output WARN goes low when the temperature rises more than 15 °C above the threshold temperature, while the open-drain output OT indicates when the temperature is more than 30 °C above the threshold. The push-pull output FANON can be used to indicate to a connected microcontroller that the fan is turned on.
Author: G. Kleine
Copyright: Elektor Electronics

PWM Dimmer/Motor Speed Controller

This is yet another project born of necessity. It's a simple circuit, but does exactly what it's designed to do - dim LED lights or control the speed of 12V DC motors. The circuit uses PWM to regulate the effective or average current through the LED array, 12V incandescent lamp (such as a car headlight bulb) or DC motor. The only difference between the two modes of operation is the addition of a power diode for motor speed control, although a small diode should be used for dimmers too, in case long leads are used which will create an inductive back EMF when the MOSFET switches off.

PWM Dimmer/Motor Speed ControllerPhoto of Completed PWM Dimmer/Speed Control

The photo shows what a completed board looks like. Dimensions are 53 x 37mm, so it's possible to install it into quite small spaces. The parts used are readily available, and many subsitiutions are available for both the MOSFET and power diode (the latter is only needed for motor speed control). The opamps should not be substituted, because the ones used were chosen for low power and their ability to swing the output to the negative supply rail.

Note that if used as a motor speed controller, there is no feedback, so motor speed will change with load. For many applications where DC motors are used, constant speed regardless of load is not needed or desirable, but it is up to you to decide if this will suit your needs.

Description

First, a description of PWM is warranted. As the pot is rotated clockwise, the input voltage changes linearly with rotation. At first, the voltage is such that the comparator output is just narrow spikes, which turn the MOSFET on for a very short period. Average current is low, so connected LEDs will be quite dim, or a motor will run (relatively) slowly. As the input voltage coming from the pot increases, the MOSFET is on for longer and longer, so increasing power to the load.

PWM Waveform GenerationFigure 1 - PWM Waveform Generation

Figure 1 shows how the PWM principle works. The red trace is the triangle wave reference voltage, and the green trace is the voltage from the pot. When the input voltage is greater than the reference voltage, the MOSFET turns on, and current flows in the load. Because the frequency is relatively high (about 600Hz), we don't see any flicker from the LEDs, but the tone is audible from a motor that's PWM controlled. The PWM signal is shown in blue. The average current through the load is determined by the ratio of on-time to off-time, and when both are equal, the average current is exactly half of that which would be drawn with DC.

Dimmer/Speed Controller SchematicFigure 2 - Dimmer/Speed Controller Schematic

The circuit is shown in Figure 2. U1 is the oscillator, and generates a triangular waveform. R4 and R5 simply set a half voltage reference, so the opamps can function around a 6V centre voltage. U2A is an amplifier, and its output is a 10V peak to peak triangle wave that is used by the comparator based on U2B. This circuit compares the voltage from the pot with the triangle wave. If the input voltage is at zero, the comparator's output remains low, and the MOSFET is off. This is the zero setting.

In reality, the reference triangle waveform is from a minimum of about 1.5V to a maximum of 9.5V, so there is a small section at each end of the pot's rotation where nothing happens. This is normal and practical, since we want a well defined off and maximum setting. Because of this range, for lighting applications, an industry standard 0-10V DC control signal can be used to set the light level. C-BUS (as well as many other home automation systems) can provide 0-10V modules that can control the dimmer.

While a 1N4004 diode is shown for D2, this is only suitable if the unit is used as a dimmer. For motor speed control, a high-current fast recovery diode is needed, such as a HFA15TB60PBF ultra-fast HEXFRED diode. There are many possibilities for the diode, so you can use whatever is readily available that has suitable ratings. The diode should be rated for at least half the full load current of the motor, and the HFA15TB60PBF suggested is good for 15A continuous, so is fine with motors drawing up to 30A.

Construction

While it's certainly possible to build the dimmer on veroboard or similar, it's rather fiddly to make and mistakes are easily made. Also, be aware that because of the current the circuit can handle, you will need to use thick wires to reinforce some of the thin tracks. This is even necessary for the PCB version. Naturally, I recommend the PCB, and this is available from ESP. The board is small - 53 x 37mm, and it carries everything, including the screw terminals. The PCB is double-sided with plated-through holes, and has solder masks on both sides.

The MOSFET will need a heatsink unless you are using the dimmer for light loads only. It is necessary to insulate the MOSFET from the heatsink in most cases, since the case of the transistor is the drain (PWM output). For use at high current and possible high temperatures, the heatsink may need to be larger than expected. Although the MOSFET should normally only dissipate about 2W or so at 10A, it will dissipate a lot more if it's allowed to get hot. Switching MOSFETs will cheerfully go into thermal runaway and self destruct if they have inadequate heatsinking. You may also use an IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) - most should have the same pinouts, and they do not suffer from the same thermal runaway problem as MOSFETs.

As noted above, there are many different MOSFETs (or IGBTs) and fast diodes that are usable. The IRF540 MOSFET is a good choice, and being rated 27A it has a generous safety margin. There are many others that are equally suitable - in fact any switching MOSFET rated at 10A or more, and with a maximum voltage of more than 20V is quite ok.

Testing

Connect to a suitable 12V power supply. When powering up for the first time, use a 100 ohm "safety" resisor in series with the positive supply to limit the current if you have made a mistake in the wiring. The total current drain is about 2.5mA with the pot fully off, rising to 12.5mA when fully on. Most of this current is in the LED, which is also fed from the PWM supply so you can see that everything is working without having to connect a load.

Make sure that the pot is fully anti-clockwise (minimum), and apply power. You should measure no more than 0.25V across the safety resistor, rising to 1.25V with the pot at maximum. If satisfactory, remove the safety resistor and install a load. High intensity LED strip lights can draw up to ~1.5A each, and this dimmer should be able to drive up to 10 of them, depending on the capabilities of the power supply and the size of the heatsink for the MOSFET.
source: http://sound.westhost.com/project126.htm

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